SIDDHA Medicine

Siddha medicine is practiced in Southern India.  The origin of the Tamil language is attributed to the sage Agasthya and the origin of Siddha medicine is also attributed to him. 

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The Siddhas were essentially Yogis and secondarily physicians. Traditionally, it is said there were 18 Siddhas. They left their imprint not only in medicine but in yoga and philosophy. The analogy: if there are one hundred herbal /mineral combination in Ayurveda to cure a disease, Siddha just uses 10 herbs/ mineral to elicit a similar cure.  The Tridosha theory, sapta dhatu physiology and nomenclature of the diseases in the two systems may seem similar.

Before the Aryan occupation of the Sind region and the Gangetic plain there existed in the southern India, on the banks of the river Kavery, and Tamirapani, a civilization which was highly organized (1).  This civilization has a system of medicine to deal with problems of sanitation and treatment of diseases.  This is the Siddha system of medicine.  It is possible that in the course of time this system and the one prevalent in the north supplemented and enriched each other.    The therapeutics of Siddha medicines consists mainly of the use of metals and minerals whereas in the earlier Ayurveda texts there is no mention of metals and minerals (2). From earliest times in Siddha text, there is mention of mercury, sulphur, copper, arsenic and gold used as therapeutic agents.   According to Siddha medicine AIDS has been written by the Tamil Siddhars as far back as few thousand years during the ancient prehistoric civilization of Southern India.  
 
Fundamental Principles of Siddha medicine
 


The universe consists of two essential entities, matter and energy.  The Siddhas call them Siva (male) and Shakti (female, creation).  Matter cannot exist without energy inherent in it and vice versa.  The two co-exist and are inseparable.  They are the primordial elements Bhutas,  not to be confused with modern chemistry.  Their names are Munn (solid), Neer (fluid), Thee (radiance), Vayu (gas) and Aakasam (ether). These five elements (Bhutas) are present in every substance, but in different proportions.  Earth, water , fire , air and ether are manifestations of these 5 elements .

The human anatomy and physiology, causative factor of diseases, the materials for the treatment and cure of the diseases, the foods for the sustenance of the body, all fall within the five elemental categories (3) .
The human being is made up of these five elements, in different combinations.   The physiological function in the body is mediated by three substances (dravayas), which are made up of the five elements.  They are Vatham, Pitham, and Karpam.   In each and every cell of the body these three doshas  co-exist and function harmoniously.  The tissues are called dhatus.  Vatham is formed by Akasa and Vayu Vatham controls the nervous actions such as movement, sensation ,etc.  Pitham is formed by Thee and controls the metabolic activity of the body, digestion, assimilation, warmth, etc.  Kapam is formed by Munn and Neer and controls stability.  When their equilibrium is upsets disease sets in.   The chart below may help to visualize the different properties.  In addition to the influence of the Tridoshas the seasons also affects body constituents as evident in northern and southern India.
 
The five elements: Munn, Neer, Thee,  Vayu, and  Aakasam

Tridoshas according to Siddha Medicine
The three doshas may be compared to three pillars that support a structure.  From the charts below it can be seen the Tridoshas are involved in all functions of the body, physical, emotional and mental.  The bodily activities, voluntary and involuntary are linked to Vatham.Pitham is linked to bodily changes involving destruction/metabolism.  All constructive processes are performed by Karpam.  They function dependent on each other.  They permeate every single structure in the body.  The maintenance of the equilibrium is health, disturbance is disease.
 


Vatham

Pitham

Karpam

characteristic is dryness, lightness, coldness & motility

heat, mover of the nervous force of the body

smoothness, firmness, viscidity, heaviness

Formed by Aakasam and Vayu, controls the nervous action that constitute movement, activity, sensation,etc.  Vatham predominates in the bone.

Formed by Thee, controls the metabolic activity of the body, digestion,warmth, luster, intellect, assimilation,etc.  Pitham  predominates in the tissue blood.

Formed by munn and Neer,controls the stability of the body such as strength, potency, smooth working of joints. Karpam predominates in other tissues

Vatham  predominates in first one third of life when activity, growth ,sharpness of function of sense, are greater

Pitham predominates in the second one third of life

Karpam predominates in the last one third of life. Diminishing activity of various organs and limbs

Location pervades the body (refer to Vayu chart)

Location- in alimentary canal from cardiac end of stomach to end of small intestine

Location- in chest ,throat, head and joints 
-acts as thermostat of body

The seven tissues (dhatus) one of the three doshas predominates as shown in chart above in third column.  The seven dhatus are: Rasa (lymph), Kurudhi (blood), Tasai (muscle), Kozhuppu (adipose tissue), Elumbu (bone), Majjai (marrow) and Sukkilam and    Artavam (male and female hormones) (4).
The theory of predominance of the Tridoshas according to age and season varies from that of Ayurveda (see chart). Plus in Ayurveda the experts argue that Vatham predominates in old age as in last one third of life contributing to emaciation, dryness, etc.( as opposed to Karpam in Siddha)  but as anyone who has been to north and south India will attest to -the extreme weather in the opposite ends of the country will affects individuals differently. Hence both theories could very well be correct.
 
Method of Treatment - The treatment for the imbalance of the Tridoshas are made up of the five elements. The drugs are made up of the five elements.  By substituting a drug of the same constituents (guna) the equilibrium is restored.  The correction of the imbalance is made by substituting the drug which is predominately of the opposite nature. An example is of Vatham imbalance is cold, dry thus the treatment  will be oily and warmth.  For inactivity of limbs, massage and activity, are prescribed.  If Pitham dosha is increased, warmth is produced; to decrease Pitham , sandalwood is administered, internally or externally because of its cold characteristics (5).
 
Five types of Vayu
Vatham is considered to be the primary dosha because it activates the other two doshas.   Vatham is the outcome of the Akasa and Vayu of the Panchamaha Bhutas. The location and functions of the Vayu is not much different from that of Ayurveda.
 


Prana 

Apana

 Samana

Vyana 

Udana

located in mouth and nostrils (inhaled) 
- aids ingestion

located at anal extremity (expelled) 
-elimination, expulsion 

equalizer, aids digestion

circulation of blood and  nutrients

functions in upper respiratory passages

Siddha Pharmacy
Alchemical ideas dominate Siddha medicine. Although alchemy was not the primary aim of Siddha medicine, they wanted to evolve drugs that could arrest the decay of the body.  But this could not be achieved by drugs that which themselves are subject to decay such as drugs of vegetable origin.  To prevent decay of the medicines began the preparation of medicines that do not lose their potency with the lapse of time.  These medicines can be administered in small doses.  They are available in all seasons and can be preserved.   The Siddhars knew of the occurrence of the metallic compounds, ores, and their knowledge was so advanced that they could prepare them from simpler materials (6).  Agasthiyar , Thirumular and Bogar are three of the Siddhars  in the lineage of the 18 Siddhars.  They have contributed to the preparation to these medicines.   As the universe is composed of the five Bhutas so are the medicines.   Some of the methods used by the Siddhas still survive under a veil of secrecy.  Certain mercury and arsenic compounds are manufactured only in certain families and the methods are a closely guarded secret.
 
Mercury
In North America, mercury based medicine are banned although the dental field still uses mercury amalgam fillings. Most practitioners would caution against using some Ayurvedic, Siddha, and Tibetan medicine due to the mercury and lead.  This is largely due to the ignorance, as the mercury used in these medicines are completely transformed into inert compound or ores (bhasma) through a 18 step process before being prescribed as medicine. (On the other hand it has been proven via X-ray that every time a person  with mercury amalgam fillings chew their food they swallow  a little of the mercury in their fillings.)
Mercury occupies a very high place in Siddha   medicine.  It is used as a catalytic agent in many of its medicines.  When mercury is used it is used in combination with sulfur.  The addition of sulfur is to control the fluidity of mercury this converts to mercuric sulfite which is insoluble in mineral acids. Siddhas used 5 forms of mercury. (1) Mercury metal-rasam (2) red sulfide of mercury-lingam (3) mercury chloride- veeram  (4) mercury subchloride (mercury chloride)-pooram  (5) red oxide of mercury-rasa chenduram.  Ordinary rasa chenduram (red oxide of mercury) is a poison but when it is processed as Poorna chandrodayam according to Siddha practice, it becomes ambrosia.  Research is necessary to solve such apparent riddles of the transformation of these admittedly poisonous compounds.

Here is a brief summary of the classifications of Siddha medicine (7).
1. Uppu (Lavanam): drugs that dissolve in water and decrepitates when put into fire giving off vapors.   (Water soluble inorganic compounds). There are 25 varieties and are called kara-charam, salts and alkalis.
2. Pashanam: drugs that do not dissolve in water but give off vapours when put into fire (water insoluble inorganic compounds)
3. Uparasam: drugs that do not dissolve in water (chemicals similar to Pashanam but differing in their actions) such as mica, magnetic iron, antimony, zinc sulphate, iron pyrites, ferrous sulfate.
4. Loham: metals and minerals alloys (water insoluble, melt in fire, solidify on cooling) such as gold, silver copper, iron, tin and lead
5. Rasam: drugs which are soluble, sublime when put in fire, changing into small crystals -mercury amalgams and compounds of mercury, arsenic.
6. Gandhakam: sulphur insoluble in water, burns off when put into fire
7. Ratnas and uparatnas: thirteen varieties are described coral, lapis-lazli, pearls, diamonds, jade, emerald, ruby, sapphire, opal, vaikrantham, rajavantham, spatikam harin mani.
It is important to know the compatibility of the drugs that produce synergistic effects or antagonistic effects-hence do not self prescribe Siddha medicines.
In Siddha  materia medica,  metals are divided according to the Bhutas. The Siddha have also given the following proportions of the Bhutas (see second table).
 


Anatomical division 
legs-Prithvi

 abdomen -Appu 

chest- Theyu

 neck- Vayu

head-Akayam

Physiological 
division
faceces-Prithvi 

urine-Appu

blood-Theyu

saliva- Vayu 

 sex hormones- 
Akayam

Table of Bhutas ( proportion) and metals
 


Prithvi (1 ½) 

Appu (1 1/4) 

Theyu (1)

Vayu  (3/4) 

 Akayam (½)

gold

lead 

copper

iron

zinc

It is advised that all pharmaceutical preparation follow this proportion of the Bhutas.
The common preparations of Siddha medicines are, Bhasma (caclined metals and minerals), churna (powders), Kashaya( decoctions), Lehya (confections ) Ghrita (ghee preparations) and Taila (oil preparations).  Siddha have specialized in Chunna (metallic preparations which become alkaline), mezhugu (waxy preparations) and Kattu (preparation that are impervious to water and flames).
 
Diagnosis


The eight methods of diagnosis (sthanas) are nadi (pulse), kan (eyes), swara(voice), sparisam(touch), varna (color), na(tongue), mala (faeces) and neer (urine).

Nadi Vignanam - the diagnosis and prognosis by reading of the pulse.
Nadi in Siddha means two things -one is the pulse and the other is the nerves.  In Yoga philosophy there  are 72,000 nadis or meridians. They take root from the main sushuma , intertwined by the ida and the pingala. These are three most important nerves in the body along the spinal cord. The sushuma resides inside the spinal cord, and ida and pingala cross at the chakra points along spine.  Science has yet to locate these three nerves.  They are part of the sympathetic nervous system.  The pulse is influenced in health or in a disturbed state by the nerves mentioned above and their minute branches all over the body (8).

The following pre-conditions are necessary before taking pulse.
The patients should not have oil on his/her head and the body should not be wet.  The pulse should not be taken after a meal, running, any physical exercise, emotional disturbances (anger, joy). The general rule is for males, the right hand pulse is taken, female -left hand pulse. But owing to anatomical variations other places for pulse taking can be used, such as ankle, ear lobes.
The pulse should also be read at different parts of the day according to the season.

(Please note: Most of these temperature changes are based on Indian weather. This could vary in other countries.)
April to May, the pulse is read at sunrise. June, July. October and November the pulse should be felt at noon.  December, January and February the pulse is read while the sun sets.   In March, August and September the pulse is read in the right hand.  Due to the disturbance of the doshas by the temperature changes, the normalcy of the pulse is affected.

This is due to the increase and decrease of the doshas in the day (warmth, cold), seasons and atmospheric changes.  This increases  and decrease will affects the life stream or Jeeva dhatu. At noon the heat of the noon sun increase pitha dosha thus normal pitha pulse will not be felt.  In the cold season karpa pulse is increased.  In the hot season because of the dryness, the vatha increases and in autumn the pitha increase. So these natural seasonal changes will be reflected in the pulse.  This is the reason in the hot months (April to May) the pulse should be felt before sunrise.  As pulse reading is subjective, evaluation, concentration and experience is valuable.

Vatha increases in morning for 4 hours after sunrise. Pitha for the next 4 hours and karpa in the evening.   In earlier part of night vatham increases, pitham during middle of night and karpam at end of night.  The place for feeling of this pulse is on the lateral aspect of the right forearm, two centimetres up from the wrist -joint.  The index, middle and ring fingers are used to feel the vatham, pitha and karpa nadi in this respective order.  An experienced Siddha practictoner can read the threedoshas by placing his/her finger on the radial artery.  In feling the pulse, the pressure should be on on efinger after another.  The pressure alternates, on alternate fingers.  The pulse is felt in the order of vatha nadi, pitha nadi and kapa nadi.
Vatha nadi imbalance will indicate flatulence of the abdomen, pain and ache all over the body, difficulty in urination, fever, change in voice, constipation, dry cough, discolouration of skin.


Pitha nadi imbalance will indicate eyes, urine, and faeces become yellowish, burning sensation in the stomach, headache, thirsty, dryness of mouth, confusion, diarrhea.

Kapa nadi imbalance will indicate heaviness of the body and head, sweet taste of tongue, cold to touch, loss of appetite, flatulence cough with phlegm, m difficulty in breathing.
 
Urine examination (neer kuri)
Neer is urine and kuri is signs and symptoms.  Theraiyar was one of the latter authors of Siddha medicine who wrote on urine examination and stages of health.  He explains the colour and consistency of the urine in different doshas and disease.  He also talks of the spreading of a single drop of oil on the surface of the urine indicates imbalance of specific dosha and prognosis of disease. (This practice should only be undertaken by Siddha practitioner)  In Ayurveda and Unani medicine the urine is examined mostly for its colour, smell, consistency and deposit.  Urine analysis is more important than examination of sweat or faeces.   Urine is the waste product of metabolism and HAS to be eliminated from the body.  A person can be constipated for days but if urine is not excreted for a day serious health consequences can result.   The waste product from every tissue metabolism is carried in the blood to the kidneys which removes the excessive salts and suspensions and eliminates them.  Normal urine is thin straw colour and odourless.  The colour of the urine comes under five division, yellow, red, green , dark and white (9). Each of these are further divided as illustrated below.  The time of day and meals eaten will affect the color of the urine.
 
Yellow
1. Color of urine similar to water which straw has ben soaked- indigestion
2. Lemon colour- good digestion
3. Reddish yellow -heat in body
4.  Color similar to forest red or flame colored - extreme heat
5. Color of saffron- heat in body at highest level
Red
1. Red color with slight dark red- the blood has become hot
2. Bright red colour-more hot than above
3. Dark red- blood in urine
Green
1. Green with slight dark colour- cold in the body
2. Green with sky blue - cold and poison in body
3. Green with blue-vatha imbalance
4. Blue color and slimy urine early vatha disease
5. Leaf green -late vatha disease
Dark colour
1. Dark red- jaundice or serious pitha disease
2. Reddish dark-destruction of blood cells (haemolysis)
3. Greenish dark-impurities in the blood
4. Pale white and dark- vatha and kapa disease, feverish with kapa diminishing
White
1. Pale white and clear-reduction of warmth in body, indicates incurable nature of illness
2. Mucous discharge -kapa dosha due to excessive heat
3.Milky white-indicated destruction of marrow and the possibility of wasting disease
4. Pale white with mucous and bad odour- inflammation and ulcer in the urinary passage from kidney to bladder or  renal or urethral calculus
5. Semen like urine-highly depleted kapa dosha and disturbance of all doshas
6. Urine with no sediment - incurable disease
7. Urine like milk or buttermilk- incurable disease
8. Urine resembling washings of spoiled meat- bad functioning of kidneys and depletion of blood and kapa
9. Urine like melted ghee or dense- indication of impending death
Density
If urine is light and clear it indicated vitation of kapam and weakness of bladder. Heavy urine indicates disturbance of all doshas. Could also indicate internal ulceration and odema of the body.
Smell
Pungent smell indicates ulcer in the bladder. Acidic smell indicates excessive heat which may lead to coldness in limbs. Honey smell of urine indicates increase of blood in unhealthy state.  Smell of raw meat indicates possibility of disease of muscle or adipose tissue.
Froth
Increase froth indicates destruction of muscle and fat. Yellow or  reddish indicates jaundice. No froth or little indicates vitation of tridoshas.

The Eyes
The window to the soul and internal health.   If vatham is imbalances the eyes will be shifty and dry.  Pitham imbalance -eyes will be yellow and sensitive to light.  If kapa in excess, watery secretion and oiliness and lack of lustre.  In disturbance of all three doshas, eyes will be inflamed and red.

Voice
In kapa vitation -voice is heavy.  In pitha vitation -voice will be short. Vatha will be different from the other two.  Voice also indicates strength.

Touch
Vatha derangement-touch will be cold.  Pitha -hot. Kapa -moist.

Color
Vatha vitiated -body of person becomes rough, skin and hair appear broken.  Does not like cold.  Memory is affected, self-confidence.
Pitha in excess-cause excess thirst, hunger and burning sensation.  The lips, palms, feet and eyes will be red. Kapa in excess-body is soft and oily. Loss of appetite and thirst.

Tongue
The tongue diagnosis is also used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM).  Refer to TCM in AM&M report on organ location and diagnosis.
In vatha derangement, tongue will be cold, rough, furrowed.  In pitta, it will be red or yellow.  In kapa, it will be pale and sticky. In depletion of tridoshas tongue will be dark, with the papillae raised and dry.
 
Faeces
Undigested food-the stool will sink. Digested food -stool floats.
Provoked vatham-faeces is hard and dry. Pitta vitation, it is yellow. Kapa disturbance it is pale.  Lack of digestion fire the faeces is watery.  Foul smelling of varied colour and shining the disease is incurable.

Kalpa
The Siddhas have developed a discipline called kaya kalpa. This discipline address the sections on longevity and fountain of youth with complete freedom from illness.  It is similar to rasayana of Ayurveda and gerontology of modern medicine.  Kalpa means ‘able, competent'.  The Siddha were more concerned with quality and longevity of living than with pursuit of sex.
Gold and mercury are administered in rejuvenation.  More than medicines it is the discipline led by the individual that ensures longevity and freedom from illness.  Breath control (pranayanam) and diet are two important parts  of this discipline.  Proper diet will promote physical stamina and mental equilibrium.  The less ones eats  the healthier can remain. In today's world it pays to be mindful of everything that we ingest .
 


Siddha medicine and HIV/AIDS
The Tamil Siddhars are 18 enlightened men and women who wrote down the causes of 4,448 different disease and prescribed medicines.  AIDS was called "Vettai Noi".  AIDS syndrome was already known to the Siddha system of medicine.  It was further classified into 21 types, most of which are caused due to wrong diet, excessive sex causing depletion of prana. (By stating this, Siddha medicine  does not mean to judge people or make  a moral stand but meaningless sex depletes a person emotionally, physical and spiritually.  Underlying all sexual acts is the quest for love, intimacy and acceptance).
The chief cause of "Vettai Noi" is the defects in the three humors -Tridohas.

 REFERENCE:
Dr. V. Narayanaswami. Introduction To The Siddha System of Medicine. Research Institute of Siddha Medicine. 1st ed. Madras: 1975
All footnotes are from above book
1 and 2. pg 2
3. pg 6,  4. pg. 7, 5. pg 8, 6. Pg 16, 7. Pg. 15, 8. Pg 31, 9. Pg. 36
Other recommended references
1.http://www.levity.com/alchemy/bhogar3.html
2. M. Govindan. BABAJI and the 18 Siddha Kriya Yoga Tradition. 3rd ed.
 
HIV/AIDS -An approach through Siddha System of Treatment .
This is a condensed report of the submissions handed in to the Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha, India. I have only added four of the submissions . There were a total of twelve submissions  by doctors and practitioners of the system of medicine.  All information below has been adapted from the report.
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Caution: Do not attempt to ingest/prepare any of these herbal, metals minerals without the advice and consultation of a Siddha practitioner. 
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NB : Due to the hundreds of languages  of India , some words in Ayurveda and Siddha are the same or have very similar meaning, such as Pittam is same as Pita , Thathu similar to Dhatu.
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A) Indigenous Herbal Medicines to cure "Vettai Noi"
 The 18 Siddhars of the Siddha traditional have classified 4,448 diseases and prescribed medicines  in the form of herb, roots, salts, metals and mineral compounds.  AIDS was classified as "Vettai Noi" as early as a few  thousands of years ago in the cradle of ancient prehistoric civilisation in Tamil Nadu,  Southern India.

Siddha system is based on hypothetical and biological laws of nature.  The Siddhars, were pioneers to the world in the field of minerals, metals, and  medicinal herbs.  They found out the methods of processing metals, minerals, herbs and natural raw materials to make churnams, chenthurams and  leyhams, etc. (Churnam is powdered formulation, leyhams is thick batter like formulation).
Vettai Noi, was  further classified into 21 types, most of which are caused by depletion of the Prana and/or Ojas through excess indulgence and abuse of the body, rendering the immune system weak and  susceptible to pathogens .

The chief cause of "Vettai Noi" is due to the three humors, Tridoshas and mainly due to Azhal
 Kurtrum (Pittam or bile, acidic nature) exhibited in the blood stream.
The following herbs are recommended for the effective treatment of "Vettai Noi".
1. Aragumpul (Cynodon Dactylon Pers)
2. Karisalinkanni(Eclipta Alba Hassk)
3. Musu Musukkai (Mukai Scavrillia)
4. Thoodhovali (Solanum Trilobatum Linn)
5. Jeeragam (Luminum Cyminum)

Arugampul is used to cure: heampotese, phlegmatic-respiratory problems and  disease related to eye and head, epilepsy, sleeplessness, liver cirrhosis, ulcerated wounds, diarrhea.  The herbs act as emollient, astringent, diuretic and styptic (causing contraction of organs or tissues, astringent qualities).

Karisalinkannee (Karisalai or Potralai Kayanthakari) has regenerative effects and rejuvenative properties, on the human metabolic activities.  It activates the liver, spleen and bone marrow in  boosting immunity against diseases.  The herbs act as hepatic tonic, chologogue (stimulated flow of bile into duodenum), purgative and deobstruent.  The Karisalai has as  its contents, reducing sugar, sterols, sulphur, gloveocides- proteins, phenols, tannic and sapomine. It further more acst as a Kaya kalpha herb improving intelligence, endowing wisdom and provides a healthy lustre to complexion.

The overall benefits of the above herbal medicines cure most of the diseases that arise out of the disorder of the liver and spleen. It can be summarised as liver, spleen tonic, boost stamina/libido,  increases  alkaloids (increase alkalinity in body- most diseases arise out of an acidic environment  in the body) and glucosides and  cures uraemia ( raised levels of nitrogenous waste compounds in the blood , excreted in by the kidney -which results in nausea, drowsiness, etc).

Musa Musukkal is used to cure many respiratory system illness of cough, chest pains,etc.  It is used as a expectorant and has an astringent qualities.
Thoodhovali-another Kaya kalpha herb increases strength by toning the respiratory system and bone marrow function, thereby removing the defects arising out of Silethamam the 3rd humor.  It acts as a stimulant tonic and expectant, allowing the body to be purified to increase the metabolic activities.  This leads to an increase in body weight, builds muscle mass, and increases libido.
Jeeragam -has carminative and astringent properties.  It is a remedy for illness like stomach ache, dysentery, asthma, TAB bronchitis, disintegrates stones formed in liver, spleen and renal tract.

It improves digestive capacity aiding increase in body weight.  Jeeragam acts on all parts of the abdomen, especially on the liver, spleen, urino-genital system, bone marrow, and blood -respiratory organs.

Thus, these five herbal medicines, Aragumpul, Karisalinkanni, Musu Musukkai, Thoodhovali,  Jeeragam were used to eradicate most of the disease of the liver, spleen, bone marrow, blood, respiratory organs, urino-genital organs, resulting in good improvements in the general condition of the body.
As an adjunctunct to the above herbal medicines, sandal wood products are used. The most common is as, massage oil or incense.  Sandalwood has properties of disinfectant, astringent, cooling, diuretic and diaphoretic.

I met  Dr. Ganapathy during my research in Madras. He is a man of deep warmth and wisdom.

Reference: Dr. A. G. Ganapathy, Dr. V.S. Kanagasundaram, Indigenous Herbal Medicines to cure "Vettai Noi"
 
B)Siddha Sysyem of Medicine for treatment of HIV/AIDS
Other Siddha medicines that could be prescribed under medical supervision and administered for AIDS as  supportive therapy are as follows:
1. For purification of blood: Kanthaga Rasayanam, Paranki Pattai churam, Palakaria Parpam
2. For reducing fever: Linga chenduram, Gowri Chinthamani, Thirikadugu Churnam, Rama Banam, Vadha, Piththa, Kaba Sura Kudineer
3. For persistent diarrhea: Thair Sundi churnam, Kavika churnam, Amaiodu Parpam
4. Revitalizers and rejuvenators to the disabled immune system of the body: Orilai Thamarai karpam, Serankottai Eagam, Thertran Kottai leyham, Amukkara,
5. Antiviral drugs: Rasagandhi Mezhugu, Murukkanvithtu, Masikai, Edi Vallathathy mezhugu
6. Restoration to the disturbed mind: Vallarai
Reference: Dr. V. Kalidoss, Siddha System of Medicines for Treatment of AIDS
 
C) The Treatment for AIDS prospects in Sidha Medicine
 In this report, it emphasized the fundamental concept of the body's immunity gets heavily depleted by excess indulgence as stated by the Siddhars. Siddhars have evaluated that Azhal thathu is responsible for the defence of the body. Disease takes place with the deterioration of the Vindhu thathu.
 (As per Thirumoolar Thirumandhiram it has been described that 6400 drops of blood cells make one drop of Vindhu , i.e. 80 drops of red cells make one drop of white corpuscles and 80 drops of white corpuscles make one drop of Vindhu. Thus 80x80 = 6400 drops of blood cells makes one drop of Vindhu.  If extensive loss of  Vindhu occurs in one human body naturally it will reflect on blood cell.  Source: Dr. S. Thirunavukkarasu, AIDS an approach through Siddha System of Treatment).

Hence with the deterioration of Vindhu thathu, disease that arise are as follows : pain, skin lesions, formation of nodes, malignancy, fistula, abscess, cervical adenitis, inguinal adenitis (adenitis is inflammation of the glands), ulcers in the loin, eczematous eruptions, pustules, constipation, TB, diarrhoea, chronic dysentery, anaemia, jaundice and upper respiratory infections. Siddha medicines are formulated such as they have a total rejuvenating effect on the body's thadus and not only effective against a particular disorder.

The special feature of the Siddha medicine is that most of the preparations are in compound formulation, and because of its synergistic action, toxicity is being diminished, thereby increasing bioavailability through the cells of the body.  The pharmacodynamics of this system is entirely different from other systems of medicines.
Drugs that could be prepared for AIDS may be classified as follows:
1. Herbal preparations
- Serankottai Nei (herbal ghee), Mahavallathy leyham, Parangi rasayanam
2. Herbo mineral preparations
Gandhak Parpam, Gandhaka rasayanam
3. Herbo mercuric preparations
Idivallathy mezhugu, Poorna Chandrodayam
(From my understanding of mercurial compounds used  in Ayurveda/Siddha the mercury is undergoes a 18 step process of oxidation. The end results is an ore or derivative of mercury.)
4. Herbo-mercuric-arsenial preparations
 -Rasagandhi mezhugu, Nandhi Mezhugu, Sivandar Amirtham, Kshayakulanthan Chenduram
 Apart from these medicines other Siddha medicines mentioned by other practitioners can be also be used with the above.
Reference: Dr. Anadakumar, The Treatment for AIDS prospects in Siddha Medicine
(I spent the months in Chennai under the tutelage of Dr. Anadakumar.  It was an  enriching experience, compounded with his genuine concern for my well being, mind and body plus the multitude of people who came to consult  him.  At times we went to nearby towns where he set up his clinic -prescribing medicines to the ill and needy.  I tried to learn as much as I could with the time constrain.)  

D) The Scope of Kalpa drugs in the control of HIV infection
 ‘Kalpam' is defined as the panacea intended for prolonging life for an indefinite period.  It is said that while taking kalpha drugs , one should strictly follow the prescribed diet.
The list of kalpa drugs given by different Siddhars slightly varies from one another. To study the kalpa drugs in detail the works of Bohar, Machamuni, Konkanavar, Karuvurar ( these are 4 of the 18 Siddhars)  and others  should be taken into account. For more information about the Siddhars refer to, http://www.levity.com/alchemy/bhogar1.html

Method of administration of Kalpa drugs.
Kalpa drugs are given only after adhering to certain preliminary processes.
1. Vazhalal Kazhatral (removal of mucous secretion from throat)
The juice of Karisalai (Eclipta Alba) with ghee is painted over the uvula as well in and around the tonsil to enable the mucous to be vomited out.  This process should be repeated once in the early morning for a period of 40 days for the complete removal of poisonous effects from the throat.
2. Malam Kazhatral (cleaning of the bowels)
-the juice of Katrazhai (Aloe Vera) is mixed with castor oil and used as a lubricating enema
-a decoction of Kadukkai (Terminalia Chebula) is a safe and gentle laxative without griping pain or other discomforts.
3. Milagu Karpam
-after completion of the preliminary courses the next drug to be taken is Milagu (Piper nigrum). Pepper is to be taken daily 5 in numbers with the suitable medium.  It should be increased  at the rate of five per day up to a maximum of one hundred . Then it is gradually reduced at the rate
of five per day. The time taken for the entire process is 40 days. This Karpam tones the entire body.
4. Karanthai karpam (Basil plant)
There are 19 species of which Sphaeranthus Indicus, Sphaeranthus Hirtus and Sphaeranthus Zeylanicus are the most important species for therapeutic use.
Any of the above mentioned is dried, powdered and mixed with sugar at the ratio of 4:1.
This drug is taken daily 40 grains with honey, in two divided doses, on an empty stomach.  It helps in eliminating the pathologic symptoms caused by the Pita and Vata.
5. Seenthi (Tinospora Cordiflora) given for  various kinds of fevers. It is a good tonic for strengthening the entire system.
6. Vembu (Azadirachi Indica)-riped bark tones up the nervous system improves the skin and connective tissues.
7. Karisalai (Eclipta Protrata), Kuaimeni (Acalypha Indica), Siruseruppadai (Mollugo Lotoides)
These three drugs together reduce fat, tone up muscle, expel gas from stomach and ‘kabam" from respiratory system, and gives skin a  healthy glow. (Kabam is mucous)
8. Karuvumathai- Black datura is a rare species.  The whole plant when bruised and  taken, mixed with sugar is capable of rejuvenating the system.
9. Medicated oil bath:
Milagu- Piper Nigrum
Manjal-rhizomes of Curcuma Aromatica
Kadukkai-fruits of Terminalia Chebula
Nelli-fruits of Emblica Offinalis
Veppam vithu- seeds of Azadirachta Indica
A paste made out of the above ingredients in equal parts, cows milk and butter is used externally for taking bath twice a week while taking kalpa drugs.
Diet: The diet in the course of kalpa drugs is to be without common salt, tamarind, fish, meat and pungent foods.  Sex  should be minimized and/or avoided. (Refer to (C) above for reason) .

Kapla plants capable of rejuvenating the system very quickly are :
1. Pon seenthil -Yellow moon creeper
2. Pey churai- Bitter bottle gourd
3. Sarkarai vembu- Scoparia Dulcis
4. Karunchithra moolam- Plumbago Capensis
5. Karunchithakathi- Sesbania Grandiflora (small black variety)
6. Karu nelli- Black Goosebery
7. Nagathali- Opuntia Dilleanii
8. Karu maruthu- Terminalia Tomentosa
9. Pey kadali- Cicer Arietinum (wild variety)
Capable of toning up the system:
1.Senkottai- Semicarpus Anacardium
2. Pon kaiyan- Eclipta plant bearing yellow flowers
3. Pon oomathai- Datura plant bearing yellow flowers
4.Thillai- Excoecaria Agallocha
Prolonging life:
1. Sarkarai vembu-Scoparia Duclis
2. Kodi nelli- Indian Gooseberry( creeper variety)
3. Azhu kanni-Indian weeping tree
4. Thozhukanni- Telegraph plant
 
Nervine tonic:
1. Nillappanai- Curculigo Orchiodes
2. Kattu jathikkai- Myristica Malabarica
3.Vetrilai kasthuri- Hibiscus Abelmoschus
4. Etti- Strychnos nux-vomica ( a homeopathic remedy)
5. Neer birami- Bacopa Monnieri
6. Vishnu kranthi- Evolvulus Alisnoides
7. Sangu pushpi- Clitoria Ternatea

Siddars not only depend on rare herbs for kapla treatments.  They use certain minerals and metal also.  It is believed that with the help of rare single kapla plant , mercury, sulfur, arsenic, etc., may be consolidated to stand the test of fire.
Siddha kapla drugs of mineral compounds contain chiefly gold, mercury, sulfur and salts.  Mercurial compounds are highly effective as anti syphilitic, nervine, tonic, stimulant alternatives and  bacterostatic.  Small doses of calcimined oxides prepared according to the Siddha method ensure certainty of effect and absorption in the system.

Sulphur:
Calcimined sulphur or red oxide of sulfur can be obtained by solidating it first by the Siddha method of purification.  In small doses, it conserves the body, and it is diaphoretic and alterative.  Therapeutically, it is used as both external and internal remedy against skin diseases, rheumatic arthritis, asthma, jaundice and blood poisoning.

Arsenic:
As per Siddha kalpa, purified and consolidated arsenic is effective against all fevers, asthma and anaemia.

Gold:
It is alterative, nervine tonic, antidote to poison and a powerful sexual stimulant. Very little is absorbed in the system. Care is taken to see that calcinations of gold are free from metallic state and lustre to ensure safe absorption in the system.
Thus, these drugs and metallic minerals can be screened for its anti-viral, immune stimulant and immuno-modulator activity.   As HIV negative people have taken Kalpha drugs for rejuvenation and long life, it is believed that if Kayakapla therapy is thoroughly investigated using modern parameters it might lead one to find whether these drugs could be used in preventative or curative benefits in AIDS or other degenerative disorders.
Reference: Dr. S. Rajalakshmi, Dr. G.Veluchamy, The Scope of Kalpha drugs in the control of HIV Infection
The Siddha medicines that I have taken:
1. Thetrankottai Ilagam ( immune boster, improves digestion, increase muscle mass)
2. Amukkura Churnam mathira (Withania Somifera)
3. Thanga Baspam ( herbal pills mixed with gold powder )
4. Sivam - to  improve lung capacity as in tidal volume of oxygen in breathing
5. Muthu Baspam (herbal pills with silver)
All these medicines are taken at meals with warm milk, Ovaltine, Milo or Horlicks and add a half teaspoon of honey.